Framework for the Assessment of Creative Thinking in PISA 2021

Framework for the Assessment of Creative Thinking in PISA 2021


PISA employs a definition of creative thinking that is relevant to 15-year-old students around the world. Creative thinking in PISA 2021 is defined as the competence to engage productively in the generation, evaluation and improvement of ideas, that can result in original and effective solutions, advances in knowledge and impactful expressions of imagination. This definition of creative thinking is aligned with the one proposed by the Creative Thinking Strategic Advisory Expert Group (OECD, 2017[3]) 2 . It highlights the fact that students in all contexts and across all levels of education need to learn how to engage productively in the practice of generating ideas, how to reflect upon ideas by valuing both their relevance and novelty, and how to iterate upon ideas until they reach a satisfactory outcome. It has also been informed by the guidance of interdisciplinary experts and a comprehensive review of the literature on creativity.

Description of activity

According to this framework, creative thinking is enabled by the combination of various different individual components, and is influenced by contextual factors . 

  • Curiosity and exploration
  • Creative self-efficacy
  • Beliefs about creativity
  • Social environment